Blood Pool – Reader Contributed Test Results

Note from Dave–

I’m so happy this work by Craig is finally going up on the site. There was an extraordinary amount of work put into this post, not just in the writing and visuals, but in the meticulous effort he has put forth in mining all the data throughout the site. Extra thanks to Matt’s amazing contribution as well in processing and developing the data set.


Readers of this blog often share the results of their test results in comments, tweets, and emails. I’ve been collecting and labeling these into a dataset.  This article presents a summary of the nearly 200 data points extracted from the comments through October 1st.

Special thanks to Matt Allington who put together the interactive visualizations for this post.  Matt is a Power BI reporting professional (and LCHF advocate) at

Lipid Scores

Looking through the comment history, I found the most consistently reported metrics were those from a basic lipid panel:

  • Total Cholesterol (TC),
  • Triglycerides (TG),
  • High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C)
  • Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C)

What’s great about this quartet is you can use the Friedwald equation to verify their consistency or to interpolate the missing fourth score, if not provided.

Units are also easy to detect and convert.  The most commonly used units are mg/dL in America and mmol/L in Europe.  I made a heuristic to guess the units based on their range, and converted everything to mg/dL for display purposes.

Other test results were much less common. These included particle counts (HDL-p, LDL-p), glucose, HbA1C. See my previous post for recommendations on the best tests to get.

The Data


I recommend reading any study or presentation of health data with a grain of salt. In this case, take two:

1. Bias – These data were self-reported, not scientifically sampled. I would suspect that most readers found this site after switching their diet to LCHF, and probably after getting a high cholesterol score.

2. Accuracy – This data is not independently verified. In very few cases have I actually seen the corresponding Labcorp/Quest report. Contributors may also have misremembered or made a typographic error when submitting their comment.


Here’s are the results:



































Commenters on reported an increase of 95 mg/dL LDL-C on LCHF compared to a standard diet. This makes intuitive sense, since the primary job of the lipid system is to deliver TG energy, and LCHF uses more energy from fat, so you’d expect more “boats” in the blood.

However, due to increased HDL and decreased TG, their reported TG/HDL ratio decreased by 0.8. Although most doctors will panic about 100 points of LDL-C, TG/HDL is a much better metric. So just judging from this data, on average LCHF dieters are at lower risk of CVD than standard dieters.

HDL versus LDL

Here’s the scatterplot of LDL and HDL, interactive link here.

In this chart you can clearly see the increased LDL for LCHF (black dots) compared to Standard (red dots). The gain in HDL is visible too, but less obvious. Although there are only 3 data points, Zerocarb (yellow dots) stands out for having among the highest LDL.

HDL versus TG

Here’s the scatterplot of HDL and TG, interactive link here.

In this chart, you see the LMHR cluster (LCHF in black) in the <100 TG, >100 HDL zone. I’d be most concerned about the health of the cluster of in the 200 TG, <50 HDL zone (mostly Standard diet in red).

How to Contribute

Want to have your data included in the next version of this post? Glad to have you onboard, citizen scientist!

The easiest way is to post a comment to this blog (on this or any article).  In the content, include the 4 numbers of TC, TG, HDL, and LDL keeping the same units. Also, include whatever context is relevant, but be sure to include your diet.  Here’s a sample:

I’ve been on a low-carb, high-fat diet for the past 12 months.  Here are the results from my most recent labs from September 2017.

TC 350

TG 100

HDL 80

LDL 250

If you also happen to have results from your previous diet, we’re excited to see the change. Just include the old numbers and context in a second block, similar to the first.

The Nitty Gritty


I used the context of the comment thread to try to assign labels to each data point. I wanted to know the the diet, lifestyle, exercise, date, and any other commonly-reported factors that might influence the results.

The primary label I consistently applied is the diet.  Here, I assigned to one of 4 mutually exclusive categories.

Standard – Broad category of diets that follow the food pyramid’s advice to emphasize “fruits, veggies, and low-fat dairy”. Typically <30% of calories from fat.

LCHF – Broad category of diets that limit carbs and embrace fat. Typically >50% of calories from fat.

Zerocarb – All-animal product carnivorous diet.

Fasting – Any fast of 3 or more days leading up to the test.


I noted other labels, but their reporting was more ad hoc:

Duration – When available, I added a duration as a qualifier to their primary diet.

Exercise – Anything from endurance, strength, high-intensity intervals, to vigorous walking.

IF – Intermittent fasting. Any form of time-restricted eating including 16:8, one-meal-a-day, alternate day, etc.

Test <X> – To distinguish multiple tests in a simple post.  Typically X will be a year.

Losing Weight – If the contributor reported a period of weight loss during this test.

Lowcal – The contributor reported lower-than-usual eating leading up to the test, as per the Feldman protocol.

Highcal – The contributor reported higher-than-usual eating leading up to the test, as per the Feldman protocol.

Non-fasted – If there was any reported eating in the 12-hour window before the test. These points are excluded from calculations.

Duplicate – If the contributor posted the same test result in multiple comments. These points are excluded from calculations.


I downloaded the raw comment database and wrote a script to process the data.  The script worked over a csv data file with the lipid scores, lifestyle tags, and thread context.  It generated an updated version of the data file with standardized units and an html page with the scores highlighted.  It could also generate rows for candidate comments that looked like they might have a data point. In the end, I still had to type numbers into a sheet, but I had some nice tools to validate my work.

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Bill W
Bill W
6 years ago

I’ve been on a low-carb, high-fat diet for 48 months. My most recent labs:
TC 259
TG 80
HDL 64
LDL 179

6 years ago

Happy to share regular multi year data pre and post 12 mo LCHF . Please advise email address for data .

6 years ago
Reply to  Phil

I can do multi year too – for me it shows the progression to diabetes and recovery back to normal

I’ve been on a low-carb, high-fat diet (60%) for the past 12 months. since diagnosis.  Here are the results from my most recent labs from AUG 2017. WAS on standard ( actually low fat ) since forever before that . Hba1c 90=> 42 in same period 30kg down.

TC 166 216

TG 71 238

HDL 61 40

LDL 212 297

6 years ago

Here are my most recent lab results (taken in August 2017) after approximately 3.5 months of LCHF (or more specifically macros from the ketogains calculator). During that 3.5 months of LCHF I lost 18 pounds body weight. 49 y.o. male, 6′ tall, 185 lbs

TC – 411
TG – 74
HDL – 72
LDL – 324

other #s
hs-CRP – .6
HbA1c – 5.1

In mid-august I switched to ZC, and will be getting bloodworm done in November to see what (if any) change occurs in those numbers. I’d be happy to add those when I get them done.

6 years ago
Reply to  Craig

Sorry for the delay in replying, Craig! To answer your questions: 1. My weight dropped a few pounds since switching to ZC been pretty steady at 181(+/-1.5) for the last few weeks. Oddly enough, when I was eating “keto” I was very concerned on my total calorie consumption. Since switching to ZC, I simply eat when I am hungry. 2. On the exercise front, I do strength training 5 times per week (short sessions [30 minutes or so} as outlined in “Easy Strength” by Dan John and Pavel)

Jane Boahn
Jane Boahn
4 years ago
Reply to  Craig

Weight loss is slow now (expected), but exercise is minimal (sedentary computer work). Plan to hit the gym but been slacking. Otherwise, the weight loss has been ALL without any exercise to count, only a few days on the treadmill for 1/2 to 1 hour at a time. I know I need to get busy with the weight resistance and building muscle.

My question is how to explain this to my doctor — my argument against statins. Can you summarize so I can share? I’m trying to educate him (gently).

FYI, the ONLY way I could ever lose my weight before was over a year of working hard in a gym (1-1/2 to 2 hours) for 5-6 days x week and eating reduced SAD. Keto WORKS magic for me.

Any suggestions otherwise?

6 years ago

Numbers 2 years ago
Total cholesterol 197
Triglycerides 72
HDL 61
LDL 122
Number from last week after 2.5 months on keto
Total cholesterol 250
Triglycerides 54
HDL 68
LDL 171

Hyper responder range? Not sure, but seems I’m trebding that way. Started keto for the long term health benefits. Right now really lean ~10% BF started out ~18% BF. Work out every other day with weights and work an active job ~12 hours a day. Also doing IF 16/8 since I’m just not hungry since starting keto. I eat 2x a day. Trying to gain weight back that I lost so around 3000 cals a Day net carbs ~20g, ~240g fat and ~115g protein. blood glucose fasting ~80 and ketones .5 – .9
What don’t u guys think?

6 years ago
Reply to  Alex

Hi Alex

Looks like you’re similar to me. I’m 6% body fat and exercise a lot, getting enough animal protein is key (fat will naturally increase too). This is what I’d do… You don’t give your weight/age but consider taking your protein up to about 140g if you’re around 70kgs. 115g looks too low to maintain solid muscle. Also make sure you get 40-50g protein per meal – could try going back to 3 meals per day. Add more meat, fish, cheese and eggs… and less veg.

Just get your protein level right. More protein on non-exercise days too, interestingly enough.

Hope this helps

6 years ago
Reply to  Al

Age 42. I’m 6-2 and 145 lol. All muscle, probably below 10% bf.
Yea I’ve upped the protein the last 2-3 weeks. Up around the 140g range. Thinking I’ll have to keep upping calories until I hit my range to gain weight. Hopefully I’m not one of those that needs 4-5000 cals to gain. Back in college I lifted also and played and needed 3600 to gain. Was hoping with the 20 years m metabolism wound oh slowed a bit but not looking like it. Not looking forward to 2000 cals a meal.

6 years ago

Been on Primal/Paleo 2010-2013.
After that ZERO processed food, Moderate Carb/Moderate protein/Moderate Fat (mostly saturated). Don’t really count anymore.
Age 60 years – Activity level :- 1 Hour of walk everyday, otherwise sedentary.

Latest Bloodwork:

TC – 201
TG – 85
HDL – 47
LDL – 142

Doctor is pushing Statins as LDL and TC “Beyond Range”

6 years ago

I’ve been on a low-carb, high-fat diet for about 7 years. Here are the results from my most recent labs from August 2017 I’m 63 years old and I exercise at low impact 2-3 days a week.

TC 407 mg/dL

TG 103 mg/dL

HDL 51 mg/dL

LDL 335 mg/dL

The following is my full lab report. Ted Naiman is my doctor. It didn’t format well, sorry.


Result Name



Ref Range

08/19/2017 10:40

White Blood Cell Count

4.4 x10(9)/L

(3.5 – 11.0)

08/19/2017 10:40

Red Blood Cell Count

4.59 x10(12)/L

(4.27 – 5.57)

08/19/2017 10:40


13.5 g/dL

(13.4 – 17.0)

08/19/2017 10:40


41 %

(39 – 50)

08/19/2017 10:40

Mean Corpuscular Volume

90 fL

(80 – 100)

08/19/2017 10:40

Mean Corpuscular HGB

29 pg

(28 – 34)

08/19/2017 10:40

Mean Corpuscular HGB Concentrn

33 g/dL

(33 – 36)

08/19/2017 10:40

RBC Distribution Width

12.6 %

(12.0 – 16.0)

08/19/2017 10:40

Platelet Count

199 x10(9)/L

(150 – 400)

08/19/2017 10:40

Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Automated


42 mm/hr

(0 – 31)

08/19/2017 10:40

Lymphocytes Percent

28 %

08/19/2017 10:40

Monocytes Percent

8 %

08/19/2017 10:40

Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Percent

62 %

08/19/2017 10:40

Eosinophils Percent

2 %

08/19/2017 10:40

Lymphocytes Absolute Count

1.23 x10(9)/L

(1.00 – 4.50)

08/19/2017 10:40

Monocytes Absolute Count

0.35 x10(9)/L

(0.10 – 0.90)

08/19/2017 10:40

Polymorphonuclear Leuk Absolute Count

2.73 x10(9)/L

(2.00 – 7.50)

08/19/2017 10:40

Eosinophils Absolute Count

0.09 x10(9)/L

(0.00 – 0.50)

08/19/2017 10:40



08/19/2017 10:40

Sodium Level

140 mmol/L

(136 – 146)

08/19/2017 10:40

Potassium Level

3.9 mmol/L

(3.5 – 5.3)

08/19/2017 10:40

Chloride Level

107 mmol/L

(100 – 112)

08/19/2017 10:40

Carbon Dioxide Content (CO2)

24 mmol/L

(22 – 31)

08/19/2017 10:40

Anion Gap, Blood

9 mmol/L

(6 – 14)

08/19/2017 10:40

Creatinine, Serum

0.98 mg/dL

(0.72 – 1.25)

08/19/2017 10:40

eGFR (NonAfrican-American)

>60 mL/min/1.73m²

(>=60 – )

08/19/2017 10:40

eGFR (African-American)

>60 mL/min/1.73m²

(>=60 – )

08/19/2017 10:40

Urea Nitrogen

21 mg/dL

(9 – 25)

08/19/2017 10:40

Total Protein Plasma

6.3 g/dL

(6.1 – 8.0)

08/19/2017 10:40

Albumin Level

4.3 g/dL

(3.4 – 4.8)

08/19/2017 10:40

Calcium Level

9.2 mg/dL

(8.7 – 10.4)

08/19/2017 10:40

Alkaline Phosphatase

71 U/L

(40 – 150)

08/19/2017 10:40


29 U/L

( – <=55)

08/19/2017 10:40


34 U/L

(10 – 40)

08/19/2017 10:40

Bilirubin Total Level

1.1 mg/dL

(0.2 – 1.2)

08/19/2017 10:40

Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase

18 U/L

(12 – 64)

08/19/2017 10:40

Uric Acid Level

5.7 mg/dL

(3.5 – 8.0)

08/19/2017 10:40

Glucose Random

86 mg/dL

(75 – 139)

08/19/2017 10:40

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)

5.1 %

(4.0 – 6.0)

08/19/2017 10:40

Estimated Average Glucose


08/19/2017 10:40

Cholesterol Random


407 mg/dL

( – <=200)

08/19/2017 10:40

Triglyceride Random

103 mg/dL

08/19/2017 10:40

High Density Lipoprotein Random

51 mg/dL

08/19/2017 10:40

Cholesterol LDL Random Calc

335 mg/dL

08/19/2017 10:40

Cholesterol/HDL Ratio Random



08/19/2017 10:40

Non-HDL Random Calc

356 mg/dL

08/19/2017 10:40


2.3 mg/L

08/19/2017 10:40

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

3.69 mIU/L

(0.35 – 4.94)

08/19/2017 10:40

Thyroxine (T4) Free

1.01 ng/dL

(0.70 – 1.48)

08/19/2017 10:40

Free T3

2.4 pg/mL

(1.7 – 3.7)

08/19/2017 10:40

Cyanocobalamin, Vitamin B12

405 pg/mL

(300 – 816)

08/19/2017 10:40

Vitamin D 25-OH, Total

67.3 ng/mL

(30.0 – 60.0)

08/19/2017 10:40

PSA – Total

0.45 ng/mL

( – <=4.00)

08/19/2017 10:40

Rheumatoid Factor Serum

<15 IU/mL

( – <=29)

08/19/2017 10:40

Thyroglobulin Ab, Serum

<1.8 IU/mL

(<4.0 – )

08/19/2017 10:40

Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody

7.5 IU/mL

( – <=8.9)

08/19/2017 13:05

pH, Urine


08/19/2017 13:05

Specific Gravity, Urine


08/19/2017 13:05

Protein, Urine


08/19/2017 13:05

Glucose, Qualitative Urine


08/19/2017 13:05

Ketones, Urine


08/19/2017 13:05

Blood, Urine


08/19/2017 13:05

Urine Leukocyte Esterase


08/19/2017 13:05

Urine Nitrite


6 years ago

Thanks Craig,

The hsCRP is 1.8 in the same report – CAC was not examined.

However, I have a few markers that are off:

Ferritin – 168
Red blood cell count – 5.99
Hematocrit – 51.7
Estradiol – 43

My guess is that these are pointing to excess iron. I went to donate blood, but they wouldn’t take it as I had a recent trip to South Asia – Apparently one has to wait 2 years after a trip to that region before they consider your blood safe from undetectable parasites. Any advise on any other strategy to reduce iron.

Dianne Thomason
Dianne Thomason
6 years ago
Reply to  Sam

Sam – I believe your doctor can write an order to have have blood drawn. Your blood would not then be used for donations.

6 years ago

I’ve been on a low-carb, high-fat diet (LCHF) for the past 18 months. 12 months ketegenic (<50g carbs), 6 months low carb (<100g carbs) Here are the results from my most recent lab test from July 2017.
TC 289
TG 58
HDL 66
LDL 215

Baseline while following a Standard diet (July 2014)
TC 235
TG 131
HDL 65
LDL 143

6 years ago

I’ve been on a low-carb, high-fat diet for the past 6 months. Here are the results from my most recent labs from October 2017.

TC 8.6

TG 0.6

HDL 2.1

LDL 6.1

BMI 19. Run 1 mile 1/wk, sometimes 3 miles. Yoga 1/week. Walk kids to local school daily and back. HbA1c 5.3.

6 years ago

Standard junk food diet, July 1988:
Total Chol: 191
Trigs: 151
No other lipid details, unfortunately.

LCHF June 2016, Labcorp:
Total Chol: 296
Trigs: 63
LDL (Calc): 216
HDL: 67

Zerocarb + Intermittent Fasting, Feb 2017, Labcorp:
Total Chol: 314
Trigs: 81
LDL (direct): 239
HDL: 59
LDL-P: 3389
HDL-P: 25.7
Small LDL-P: 1457

6 years ago
Reply to  C

So, the high LDL-P isn’t a CVD risk given the low Trig, High HDL? My numbers are similar while off statin, and lipidologist wants me back on a statin + ezetimibe.

6 years ago

I have been low carb for a couple of years and fasting daily (14 – 20 hrs) for about 11 months. During the 4/20/17 blood draw, I ate 2x/d on workout days, at once a day on non workout days, ate 10-12 egg yolks daily (choline), I lifted weights 5x/wk and I was limiting my protein to 50-60g/d. Today I still eat 2x/day, eat about 100g/d of protein, 4 whole eggs daily and workout 6x/wk. I am 146lbs and recently started leisurely walking for cardio. Lab results below:

1/23/17 Results
Total Cholesterol = 296(mg/dL)
Triglycerides = 38(mg/dL)
HDL Cholesterol = 107(mg/dL)
LDL Cholesterol Calc = 181(mg/dL)
Cholesterol/hdl Ratio = 2.8 Calc
Non-hdl Cholesterol = 189(mg/dL)

4/20/17 Results
Total Cholesterol = 713(mg/dL)
Triglycerides = 57(mg/dL)
HDL Cholesterol = 115(mg/dL)
LDL Cholesterol Calc =587(mg/dL)
Cholesterol/hdl Ratio = 6.2 Calc
Non-hdl Cholesterol = 598(mg/dL)

Bill G
6 years ago
Reply to  Cathy

I have been LCHF since 3/2014. I had “normal” lipid values before the swich (was high carb previously).

My numbers have looked pretty much like your last lab results ever since. The only thing to note is after ~3.5 years of this, I have developed xanthelasmas under my eyes. Be observant of any changes like this as I don’t know/understand what this could mean.

Brian Wiley
Brian Wiley
6 years ago

TC 260
TG 76
HDL 60
LDL 192


6 years ago

Here are my results. I started low carb on January 2, 2014. I’m currently eating near zero carb. For instance, yesterday I ate basically all meat and some olives. However, I still eat some vegetables.

06/25/14 175 119 37 113 3.05
06/02/15 202 129 49 120 2.45
09/18/15 224 152 40 158 3.95
02/29/16 168 103 52 65 1.25
03/04/16 188 121 36 157 4.36
10/31/16 195 112 54 147 2.72
11/14/16 163 96 55 58 1.05

These were all 12+ hours fasting, except that the 9/18/15 and 3/4/16 were after 4.5 days fasting. The test on 9/18/15 caused my doctor to freak, and at the time I took the test after 4.5 days fasting because I thought that would make the numbers better…which I now know to be a mistake. So, I tested to see what would happen if I took a 12 hour fasting sample (2/29/16) and a sample later in the same week after 4.5 days fasting (3/4/16).

In this time period, I’ve lost 50+ pounds. I also started intermittent fasting in about March of 2015, and I’ve used various IF schemes. I’m currently fasting 36-40 hours twice per week and one 20-24 hour fasting per week, with skipping breakfast most days. I take breaks though of 1+ weeks duration to give my body a rest.

You can see that these are all over the map, even if you cut out the two outliers caused by fasting 4.5 days. The only thing consistent (assuming the outliers are cut out) is HDL keeps improving.

I plan on doing Dave’s 10 day test and segueing into a test of Ted Naiman’s higher protein low carb diet to see what happens, but I’m waiting for a continuous glucose monitor to arrive. That should be here within a few weeks. I’ll report back once those tests are taken.

Jon Wright
Jon Wright
6 years ago

Date Total g/l HDL g/l LDL g/l Trig g/l
10/24/2007 2.49 0.39 1.83 1.37 Paying no attention to diet, lots of junk food, ~89kg
02/18/2011 2.34 0.47 1.69 0.92 Efforts to eat less/better + exercise, ~83 kg
06/20/2015 2.11 0.46 1.46 0.96 Efforts to eat less/better + exercise, ~86 kg
09/20/2017 2.68 0.68 1.84 0.81 LCHF for about 14 months, little or no exercise, ~75kg

The doctor expressed concern about the increased total and LDL values from the last one but didn’t suggest any intervention.

6 years ago

Dave, really enjoyed watching your video from Low Carb Down Under.

Here are my results. I started moving away from sugar, low-fat, and high-omega-6 oils after the August 2008 reading. After many baby steps, I was mostly primal/LCHF by 2012 and have been since. Have been cycling 3-5x per week 30 mins 80% of the rides — other rides range from 1-5 hours — plus 1 hour/week with personal trainer workout. No IF or fasting (yet?). Lost 20 pounds from August 2008 over 12 months. The LDL below is calculated — if I had Direct LDL, I mention in Notes.

10/31/89 229 158 105 50 2.10
08/15/08 263 173 90 72 1.25
12/10/08 264 170 58 82 0.71
08/05/09 245 158 31 81 0.38
06/28/12 280 168 81 96 0.84 Direct LDL = 154; LDL-P = 1693; sdLDL = 41 (NMR)
08/01/12 271 153 76 103 0.74 Direct LDL = 139; LDL-P = 2482; sdLDL = 33 (NMR)
12/08/15 294 199 136 68 2.00 Direct LDL = 201; LDL-P = 2774; sdLDL = 41 (NMR)
09/27/17 313 199 137 87 1.57

Also had a CAC Score of 0 on 01/08/2013.

6 years ago
Reply to  Craig

Hi Craig,

Thanks for the reply — glad I circled back here! My work with a personal trainer has been a combination of approaches: core, mat, pilates, TRX, kettle bells, resistance, Cybex. I hadn’t heard of Maffetone, so I looked it up — looks like running, but I haven’t dug in too much yet — I stopped running after an ACL reconstruction and meniscus removal, but I do cycle a lot.

One followup question — either here in the comments or private message — I will be doing an NMR test in a couple of weeks, and I’d like to try the Feldman Protocol. Somewhere I read that for those of us like me who’d like to try it, to reach out for more specific details to do it better. Would very enjoy getting the details.

Many thanks.

6 years ago

Hi. Just discovered you through a podcast – so interesting!
So I’ve got a life insurance medical exam coming up and want to reduce my total cholesterol.
According to my tests last year my doc said I should consider a statin (I never followed up on this and do not take any medication)
Last year my #s were: total (237), hdl (69) triglycerides (53).
I’m 38 yo female, not overweight.
I don’t eat exclusively LCHF, though I lean that direction for sure. I’m probably closest to paleo more than anything else though i do eat occasional GF grains & raw or goat dairy.
Would you recommend this 3 day high calories high fat approach for myself & this situation?
Also how do I determine ‘high calorie’?
And must the blood test be in the AM on the 4th day?

Thanks for your help – greatly appreciate it & look forward to leaning more!

Monique Lloyd
Monique Lloyd
6 years ago

My lipid numbers in 2011 when I was eating lowish (50-100) net carbs:
TC 169
LDL 87
HDL 63
Trig 97

In 2017 after eating keto for a year:
TC 166
LDL 41
HDL 117
Trig 39

And the above numbers are correct. I did not mix up LDL and HDL. And I don’t drink alcohol so that’s not the reason for the high HDL. I don’t know why they are at these levels but my doctor says I’m pretty much heart attack proof. I am a 67 year old female. I’ve lost over 100 pounds in the past two years and am now at normal weight (BMI 23.7). I exercise (yoga, HIIT, walking, and strength training) for 1-2 hours per day. I eat less than 20 net carbs, about 50 gms protein and 80-100 gms fat totaling about 1100-1200 calories a day. I do 16:8 hour fasts daily. I was diagnosed with T2 diabetes seven years ago with an A1C of 13.6. My last one was 5.4. I was taking the max dose of two high bp meds and my bp was still around 140/90. Now I take none and it’s around 115/55. I sleep well. I’m happy. I’m not hungry.

Ann Gardner
Ann Gardner
6 years ago

Please advise. I need to get another blood test soon. My last one was high and Dr wants to put me on statins which I resist. I am 5’6, 8st 11, 74 years old, fit and in good health. My cholesterol has always been high ish but has jumped from 7 to 9.5 on LCHF diet.
You suggest eating high fat for 3 days prior to blood test. But should this be a fasting blood test? When should the last food be consumed before the test?
Thank you

6 years ago

My numbers on LCHF (in mmol/l):

HDL 1.49

LDL 3.81

TG 1.51

TC 5.1

Tookie Gill
Tookie Gill
6 years ago

2011 2013 2014 2016 – 1 mth lchf 2017 – 1 year lchf/keto
Total C 7.5 7.8 8.4 14 10
Trig 2.4 2.9 4.8 2.3 1.2
HDL 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.9
LDL 4.7 4.9 10.8. 7.5
VLDL 1.1 1.3  
Non HDL 11.9. 8.1
Trig/HDL 1.41. 1.81   1.21 0.63

These are my profiles going back to 2011 and as you can see I have always had high C which gets me into trouble with my doctors every year. I have been on statins off and on, mostly off, but none the past 2 years or so. When we began lchf in July 2016 I had a test in August and my doctor nearly died! She said she has never seen a total C so high in someone still alive and referred me to a cardiologist. I didn’t go. I’ve changed doctors who I am ‘educating’ and shared my delight in my Trig/HDL and explained how that worked. I have an appt for a CAC scan next week and I have already sent her info. She is ultimately really supportive.

My other stats: 59 year old female, 157 cm, 55 kgs, waist 76, BP, BMI and other within normal, healthy range 🙂 I’ve lost nearly 10 kgs since Aug 2016, go to the gym at least twice a week and am fit and active.

6 years ago

Been eating LCHF and recently ZC for past 13 months. Age 58, male
During this time I’ve lost 170 pounds, used intermittent fasting, and also endurance running.

Lipid results (mg/dl) from this week
Total C 308
HDL 59
TRI 112
LDL 224

6 years ago

Here’s my lab results.

I’m on what some of you might call a “zero-carb” diet.

I eat meat and vegetables (mainly salad of chard, carrots, cucumber and celery). The carrots and cucumber are pretty sweet. I also eat about a pound of bacon a day and it has brown sugar in it. I’m pretty sure I’m not in ketosis but don’t know.

I’d like to add more fat and trim the protein but find it difficult.

Sept 19, 2017 in mmol/L
TC 17.11
TG 0.72
HDL 2.23
LDL 14.55

October 12, 2017 in mmol/L
TC 15.13
TG 0.94
HDL 2.01
LDL 12.69

I can’t tell you why the difference in a month, but I will keep better track now.

I also had “bad” kidney function results of GFR=51 and GFR=53 on Sept 19 and Oct 12 respectively.

I’m 56 years old. I feel like I’m in great health. I’m very strong and lean. I’m more worried about the kidneys and less worried about the LDL even though it is super high.

Thank you for this work Dave and thank you to everyone else involved.

6 years ago

Hi there, I messaged Dave on twitter and he said he’d look at my results somewhere on his blog so I think this is where I need to post. I’m currently doing Dr Shawn Baker nequalsmany carnivore study and got bloods done the day before I started, 14 August 2017. Up until then I had been doing LCHF since November 2014. I’m in Australia so my blood work results come in mmol/L units. I understand I’m obviously a hyper-responder but any insights would be highly valued and I’m happy to offer myself up as a test guinea pig should it help with any science. I’m due for a another round of bloodwork at the end of the carnivore study in about 20 days.

The results on 14 August 2017 were:
Cholesterol 11.8mmol/L
Triglycerides 1.0
HDL 1.67
LDL 9.7
Chol/HDL ratio 7.1

Previous results (before lchf):
4 July 2012
Cholesterol 7.5mmol/L
Triglycerides 2.9
HDL 1.1
LDL 5.1
Chol/HDL ratio 6.8

12 September 2011
Cholesterol 6.8mmol/L
Triglycerides 3.2
HDL 1.3
LDL 4.0
Chol/HDL ratio 5.2

At the same time in August I had other bloodwork done – not sure if you’d want those results too or not, just let me know.

Thank you for all you do. We’re signing up as a Patreon too, which can’t be much unfortunately but every little bit helps I hope.
Thank you

6 years ago

I’ve been eating LCHF for about 18 months. Here are my most recent lab results, taken September 2017.
TC. 213
TG. 69
HDL. 59
LDL. 140

Patrick Slaughter
Patrick Slaughter
6 years ago

Has anyone tracked their bloodwork from day one of keto? It seems like most people check it 6-8 months after starting and their TRIGS have decreased. I have been doing intermittent keto, 5 days keto & 2 off, for 9 months and am in great shape doing this (6’3” 180lb, 15% BF). I just started an extended strict keto test to see how my Lipid Panel would change. My TRIGs have been steadily increasing in weeks 1-3 so far (150 > 225 > 300). Has anyone else seen this? Is this just a keto adaption period where my body is producing TRIGs for energy, but my cells haven’t adapted to absorbing them yet leading to high serum levels? My ketone levels are 2.0-3.0 mmol/L for all the bloodwork, so I am in Ketosis.

6 years ago

LCHF past 4 months:

TC 6.6 (255 mg/dl)
TG 0.9 (80 mg/dl)
HDL 1.7 (66 (mg/dl)
LDL 4.5 (174 mg/dl)

mCRP 0.4


6 years ago

LCHF over a year. Prone to sugar binges. Lost 40 pounds in 15 months. Numbers are pre-LCHF (12/14), soon after starting LCHF (6/2016), to now (10/17).

TC 174–>203—>173
TG 417—>260—>236
HDL 33—>38—>34
LDL (not readable due to high triglycerides)—>113—>92

Simon Hunter
Simon Hunter
6 years ago

LCHF, Primal 3 years

TEST 2015_1
TC 231
TG 81
HDL 83
LDL 132

TEST 2015_2
TC 265
TG 110
HDL 68
LDL 175

TEST 2016_1
TC 229
TG 72
HDL 62
LDL 153

TEST 2016_2
TC 269
TG 57
HDL 86
LDL 172

TEST 2017_1
TC 251
TG 54
HDL 80
LDL 160

TEST 2017_2
TC 244
TG 65
HDL 88
LDL 140

6 years ago

Hi, here’s MOAR DATA! 🙂
My LCHF and weight loss (+ exercising!) journey.

Constants: Male, Height: 183cm
IF: I skip breakfast and hence “fast” 13-15hrs on most days. Some 24-36hrs fasts here and there but not consistently.

Date: 2016-07-30
Age:33, Weight: 144kg
1 month into LCHF
No exercising

Total Cholesterol: 3.11mmol/L (1.20g/L)
HDL: 0.93mmol/L (0.36g/L)
LDL: 1.58mmol/L (0.61g/L) – report says “Friedwald”, so I assume calculated and not measured
Triglycerides: 1.28mmol/L (1.13g/L)
Fasting Glucose: 5.38mmol/L (0.97g/L)

Date: 2017-05-09
Age:34, Weight: 93kg
10 months into LCHF
Weight training 2-3 times a week
HIIT/Cardio 1-2 times a week

Total Cholesterol: 5.00mmol/L (1.93g/L)
HDL: 1.40mmol/L (0.54g/L)
LDL: 3.03mmol/L (1.17g/L) – report says “Friedwald”, so I assume calculated and not measured
Triglycerides: 1.25mmol/L (1.11g/L)
HbA1c: 5.0%

Age:34, Weight: 78kg
Date: 2017-10-17
15.5 months into LCHF
Weight training 2-3 times a week
HIIT/Cardio 1-2 times a week

Total Cholesterol: 5.13mmol/L (1.98g/L)
HDL: 2.20mmol/L (0.85g/L)
LDL: 2.59mmol/L (1.00g/L) – report says “Friedwald”, so I assume calculated and not measured
Triglycerides: 0.76mmol/L (0.67g/L)
Fasting Glucose: 4.05mmol/L (0.73g/L)
HbA1c: 5.2%
Fasting insulin: 6.8 mUI/L (47.2 pmol/L)

6 years ago

Strict keto for 7 months

Trigs 38
CRP- 0.5

Had a CTCA that was perfectly normal!

6 years ago

I’ve been on low carb/high fat/moderate protein for the past ten and a half years. Over the years my HDL has crept up as has my total and LDL, and trigs lowered. My lipids have been tested every six months, I have them all on a graph, but here I include my results from seven months ago and last month when I added extra, extra fat – I am very lean:

March 2017
TC: 7 (270)
TG: 0.5 (44)
HDL: 3.5 (135)
LDL: 3.2 (124)

Sept 2017
TC: 5.5 (212)
TG: 0.3 (26)
HDL 3.5 (135)
LDL 1.8 (70)

There have been occasions over the years of low carb/ high fat when my TC was very high: 9.7 (375) and my HDL 3.9 (150) – I tell myself I’m trying to set a world record for HDL – I’ve never got it that high again – I wonder what was it was that raised it so.

6 years ago

As per my conversations with Dave on Facebook, here are the results of my experiment with Zero Carb. I am a longtime low carber, focusing on protein as the most important macro.

Results from October 2016 after 9 months on Zero Carb:
Total Cholesterol: 493
Trigs: 90
HDL: 93
VLDL: 18
LDL-C: 382
HbA1c: 5.5
Fasting Insulin: 2.2
Fasting Glucose: 81

I stopped Zero Carb in Feb, 2017.

2017 Results eating around 30-50 carbs a day, AND coming off of a 10 day vacation where bad choices were made .
Total Cholesterol: 303
Trigs: 76
HDL: 86
LDL-C: 202
HDL-P: 41.5
Small LDL-P: 441
LDL Particle Size: 21.6
LP-IR Score: Less than 25 (not insulin resistant)
HbA1c: 5.5
Fasting insulin: 2.5
Fasting Glucose: 85

I’m 47 years old, 5’6″ and currently weight 145lbs. Lifting and exercise 4-5 days a week. *Macros stayed the same and weight stayed the same during this time. Macros were: 90-110g protein, 70-90g fat, 30-50g carbs (once I quit zero carb). I was also given a zero CAC score in 2013 with similar cholesterol numbers like the current 2017 panel. I also carry two genes that make me predisposed to higher HDL, which has always been the case for me, even when I was eating a standardized western diet high in carbs. My HDL has been as high as 100 in previous tests.

Thanks for all the great work you guys are doing!

6 years ago

Great work Dave,
More citizen science data

Test 1 LCHF (8 months)
TC 6.6 (255)
HDL 1.32 (51)
LDL 4.8 (186)
TG 1.1 (97)

Test 2 ZeroCarb (90 days)
TC 7.5 (290)
HDL 1.37 (53)
LDL 5.8 (224)
TG 0.8 (71)

6 years ago


So, I think I am a hyperresponder. I have been doing modified keto (low carb, high protein, moderate fat) since the beginning of June 2017. I have been intermittent fasting (at least 16:8) daily since around July 2017. I don’t have lab work immediately prior to starting keto. My HgbA1C is great, fasting glucose is below 100, and my BP is consistently around 110-120/80s. I am about 5’9 and weight around 165. I lost about 40 pounds since starting keto.

My last results prior to starting keto were from July 2015:
Total Cholesterol: 212
HDL: 58
LDL-C: 127
Non-HDL-C: 154
Triglycerides: 134

October 26 2017:
Total Cholesterol: 472
HDL: 56
LDL-C: 375
Non-HDL-C: 1416
Triglycerides: 203

November 9 2017:
LDL-P: >3500
LDL-C: 347
HDL-C: 47
T: 247
Total Cholesterol: 443
HDL-P: 20
Small LDL-P: 822
LDL size: 22.1
Large VLDL-P: 1
Large HDL-P: 5.6
VLDL size: 37.3
HDL size: 9.1
LP-IR score: <25

I plan on doing 23 & Me to see if I have the polymorphism.

Robin Gilbert
Robin Gilbert
6 years ago

I am a 69 year old female, 133-Lb, 5′ 9″, moderate exercise, LCHF for 5 years, 2 meals/day, I fast 12-14 hours prior to all of my lab draws.

January 2015, still eating some whole grains and 2 fruits/day
total cholesterol – 194
trig – 77
HDL – 65
LDL – not done

stopped all grains and decreased fruit to 0 to 1-/day, November 2016

June 2017
total cholesterol – 375
trig – 91
HDL – 85
LDL – 272

November 2017, test after three days of Feldman Protocol (3 days of very high fat)
total cholesterol – 309
trig – 99
HDL – 75
LDL – 214

6 years ago

In a post I made (above) on 12 Oct, I said I would give an update after my 90-day carnivore study was complete. Lab results just came in! Here they are…..this is after 90 days of meat and water…..and 5 days/week of strength training:

TC – 321
TG – 39
HDL – 89
LDL – 219

other #s
hs-CRP – .2
HbA1c – 5.5

6 years ago

Hi guys. I was on a low carb, high-protein diet for about 5 days based on Dr. Eades’ Six Weeks book. On 11/16/17 my readings:
TC – 259
TG – 101
HDL – 51
LDL – 186

Doctor told me I was borderline needing statins so I freaked, found this blog, and tried 3 days at 4000-5000 calories and very low carb, protein. Basically keto. Tested again on 11/21/17:
TC – 245
TG – 50
HDL – 56
LDL – 179

So definitely better over that one week. My questions are 1) how do I hack this even more for my next doctors visit in 6 months and 2) do you guys recommend standard Keto for general health and longevity?



Brian behn
Brian behn
6 years ago

I have a lipid panel results plus calcium score. 43 year old male, and been on keto (less than 20 net carbs per day) for one year.
Total chol: 272
Triglycerides : 107
Ldl: 170

Calcium score after one year of keto …. 0. Yes, zero. While hypothyroid too.

Bill G
6 years ago

Was eating high carb before 3/2014

Labs from 11/2013

TC 150

TG 96

HDL 63

LDL 68

Went low carb (~30g total carbs (not net carbs)/day) 3/2014 to present

Labs from 5/2014

TC 419

TG 86

HDL 88

LDL 314

Latest labs 7/2017

TC 687

TG 145

HDL 108

LDL 442

Have had multiple NMRs since 2014. LDL-P always >2000. sd-LDL <90.

One interesting thing to report though… I seemed to have developed xanthelasmas under my eyes that I noticed recently… so that’s about 3.5 years after the switch.

Also had a CACS of 22.3 on 6/2015. I chalked this finding due to being a poorly controlled type 1 diabetic for 30 years. Have another one scheduled for 6/2018. Hoping no change in score but with the observation of the xanthelasmas it’s concerning.

Gökhan Göy
Gökhan Göy
6 years ago

I want a data set for cholesterol metrics(LDL,HDL,TC,TG). Do you guys know where I can find it ?

6 years ago

OK I am a bit of a nerd – I have kept all lab reports going back to 1989!

I will show two of interest. The first one, below, was when I was eating ‘healthy whole-grains’, lots of carbs and low fat. After this result I was put onto Lipitor.

October 2004

TC 290

TG 269

HDL 44

LDL 194

Three years ago I switched to Paleo, very low Carbs and a lot more fat – basically LCHF – No Lipitor

February 2017

TC 259

TG 88

HDL 73

LDL 156

I have also been able to ditch BP medication 🙂

Alex Romayev
Alex Romayev
6 years ago

Hi Dave,

As promised in the comments to your other blog post, here are my results over the years. Note, that starting in January 2015 I started to reduce carbs and by around June 2015 became consistently ketogenic. Prior to January 2015 I was also taking statins, which I stopped somewhere in Q1 2015. I have T1D, which is why you’ll see high HbA1c. Independent of the diet I’ve played soccer, tennis and stayed very active.

Date HbA1c Ch. Total HDL LDL TG
1/25/2011 7.2 174 73 87 68
5/18/2011 6.9
10/6/2011 6.3 216 85 119 60
1/10/2012 6.9 234 103 122 44
10/9/2012 6.4 223 98 115 52
2/27/2013 6.5 255 100 145 49
8/20/2013 6.7 226 95 119 61
1/29/2015 6.8 242 71 134 71

4/27/2015 6.3 470 101 352 87
07/9/2015 5.6 492 111 354 112
8/18/2015 5.8 534 105 389 199
11/27/2015 6.1 588 122 453 66
2/23/2016 5.3 506 122 363 104
06/2/2016 6.2 447 123 304 100
7/26/2016 6 484 118 356 50
5/19/2017 5.9 440 101 314 125
11/14/2017 5.4 471 124 331 54

Thanks again for all your work. I’m a software developer and run a business building and selling iOS apps. Would be happy to help in my spare time if there is anything you need.

6 years ago
Reply to  Alex Romayev

Yes — those are definitely the lipids of a Lean Mass Hyper-responder!

Jayvee Chun
Jayvee Chun
6 years ago


Mine were draw today:

TC: 294.3
Trigs: 87
HDL Direct: 58
LDL Direct: 220
VLDL: 17.4

Been on keto for a year.
I dont have baseline numbers to compare them to but seems like Im a hyperresponder

Steve H
Steve H
6 years ago

Here is the latest numbers and my starting numbers.

Date of draw 1/19/2018, 12 hr fasted. T2 diabetic.
Keto for 12 months

TC 248

TG 170

HDL 35

LDL 179

Original lipids at T2 diagnosis:

TC 374

TG 1987

HDL 28

LDL couldn’t calculate it as my tri’s were so high

A1c was 13.3 at this point.

I’ve never been able to raise my HDL above a 40 or so.

6 years ago
Reply to  Steve H

What an amazing improvement, Steve!! Congrats!!!!

6 years ago

Draw 7/31/17. SAD transitioning to Paleo
TC 288
TG 182
HDL 33
LDL 219

Draw 1/23/18. Paleo transitioning to Keto
TC 351
TG 122
HDL 41
LDL 286

6 years ago

Dave, what to you think of these numbers:
HDL 59
TG 66
LDL 242

6 years ago
Reply to  Joy

Looks pretty good from here — but I’d actually want to use your Total Cholesterol to calculate your Remnant Cholesterol through our tool. You can try it yourself here:

6 years ago
Reply to  Dave

total Cholesterol is 314. I am going to try the protocol in March and let you know the result. this is after being on Keto 10 months i have other blood tests during that time that are very similar.
and OMG you answered ! thank you 🙂

6 years ago
Reply to  Joy

That’s great, Joy — let us know how the protocol goes.

Btw, here’s your risk profile from our report tool:
(Not too shabby!)

–==== Report v0.8 ====–
Total Cholesterol: 314 mg/dL 8.12 mmol/L
LDL Cholesterol: 242 mg/dL 6.26 mmol/L
HDL Cholesterol: 59 mg/dL 1.53 mmol/L
Triglycerides: 66 mg/dL 0.75 mmol/L

Remnant Cholesterol: 13 mg/dL 0.34 mmol/L >>> Lowest Risk Quintile
Remnant Chol to HDL: 0.22 >>> Medium-Low Risk Quintile
Go to for more on Cholesterol Remnants

AIP: -0.31 >>> Lowest Risk Third
Go to for more on Atherogenic Index of Plasma

Friedewald LDL-C: 242 | Iranian LDL-C: 207
Total/HDL Ratio: 5.32
TG/HDL Ratio in mg/dL: 1.12 | in mmol/L: 0.49

6 years ago

I’ve been LCHF for 6 months, I’m a regular IFer. My most recent labs:

HDL-C 87
TG 78
LDL-C 279
TC 382

Back when I was eating a SAD, my LDL was 133 (last labs were in 2015). My doc referred me to a cardiologist who is convinced I have FH and wants me on a statin immediately. I’m 29, female, 5’8″, and 127 lbs. I don’t know if I qualify as very active, I just play hockey 4 times a week. I got an NMR a week ago and LDL-P was 2066, though my LDLs are all fat and fluffy. If the rest of the measurements from my NMR would be of interest, let me know and I’m happy to post them.

6 years ago
Reply to  Addie

Yep — Lean Mass Hyper-responder

So… you play hockey 4 times a week and you don’t know if that qualifies as active?!? :p 😀

Garrett Grossmann
Garrett Grossmann
6 years ago

I have been lchf/keto for over 4 years. Just had an nmr lipid profile that was a bit scary and found this site. Ldl-P at 2380, apob at 142, small ldl-P 1114, lp-pla 46e, hs-crp .3, lp (a)-P less than 50
TC 256
TG 68
Hdl 45
Ldl 200

Garrett Grossmann
Garrett Grossmann
6 years ago

lp-pla was 463, typo. Also body fat at 9%. I have no real baseline cholesterol numbers except I had “borderline” high cholesterol according to conventional wisdom before keto. Also I have borderline high blood pressure at 135-85(tested daily, unchanged from pre-keto days). Lots of BPC and saturated fat intake.

6 years ago

The higher Lp-Pla2 is unusual. You might want to consider getting a few other markers done such as high sensitivity CRP, Ferritin, a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (14 markers) and a Complete Blood Count. We also have a great article regarding general testing here:

6 years ago

Naturally, I plugged in your numbers on our risk profile. Not too shabby!

–==== Report v0.8 ====–
Total Cholesterol: 256 mg/dL 6.62 mmol/L
LDL Cholesterol: 200 mg/dL 5.17 mmol/L
HDL Cholesterol: 45 mg/dL 1.16 mmol/L
Triglycerides: 68 mg/dL 0.77 mmol/L

Remnant Cholesterol: 11 mg/dL 0.28 mmol/L >>> Lowest Risk Quintile
Remnant Chol to HDL: 0.24 >>> Medium-Low Risk Quintile
Go to for more on Cholesterol Remnants

AIP: -0.178 >>> Lowest Risk Third
Go to for more on Atherogenic Index of Plasma

Friedewald LDL-C: 197 | Iranian LDL-C: 172
Total/HDL Ratio: 5.69
TG/HDL Ratio in mg/dL: 1.51 | in mmol/L: 0.66

6 years ago

I have been in low carb about 10-15 years, strict ketogenic, zero carb diet about 4 months.

Zerocarb (02/18) LCHF (08/17)

TC 422 363
TG 111 106
HDL 67 85
LDL 375 259

Shane O
Shane O
6 years ago


This was my most recent blood work taken 3/5/2018. I keep carbs usually 20-30g net. For reference, I’m still in the middle of losing weight as I have lost around 40lb so far with another 30+ to go. I’m a 42yr old male 6’1.

–==== v0.9 ====–
…08 months on LCHF ::: 16 hours water fasted…
Total Cholesterol: 328 mg/dL 8.48 mmol/L
LDL Cholesterol: 257 mg/dL 6.65 mmol/L
HDL Cholesterol: 54 mg/dL 1.4 mmol/L
Triglycerides: 84 mg/dL 0.95 mmol/L

Remnant Cholesterol: 17 mg/dL 0.44 mmol/L >>> Medium-Low Risk Quintile
Remnant Chol to HDL: 0.31 >>> Medium Risk Quintile
Go to for more on Cholesterol Remnants

AIP: -0.168 >>> Lowest Risk Third
Go to for more on Atherogenic Index of Plasma

Friedewald LDL-C: 257 | Iranian LDL-C: 233
Total/HDL Ratio: 6.07
TG/HDL Ratio in mg/dL: 1.56 | in mmol/L: 0.68

3/3/2017 blood work on SAD.

–==== v0.9 ====–
…40 years on Standard American ::: 16 hours water fasted…
Total Cholesterol: 319 mg/dL 8.25 mmol/L
LDL Cholesterol: 216 mg/dL 5.59 mmol/L
HDL Cholesterol: 36 mg/dL 0.93 mmol/L
Triglycerides: 335 mg/dL 3.78 mmol/L

Remnant Cholesterol: 67 mg/dL 1.73 mmol/L >>> High Risk Quintile
Remnant Chol to HDL: 1.86 >>> High Risk Quintile
Go to for more on Cholesterol Remnants

AIP: 0.609 >>> Highest Risk Third
Go to for more on Atherogenic Index of Plasma

Friedewald LDL-C: 216 | Iranian LDL-C: 374
Total/HDL Ratio: 8.86
TG/HDL Ratio in mg/dL: 9.31 | in mmol/L: 4.06

All I can say is WOW, what a difference a year makes.

Hopefully you can use this data.

Thanks for all you guys do!!!


6 years ago
Reply to  Shane O

Wow!!! What a massive drop in your Remnant Cholesterol! And that HDL is looking much, much healthier. Well done!

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